Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay - 863 Words

Isaac Newton was born in England in 1642. He grew up never knowing his real father but resenting his step father. At age 19, Newton went off to Trinity College in Cambridge where he studied philosophers and astronomers such as Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Copernicus. It was here; while he obtained his degree, that Newton devised the theory of Calculus. He obtained his degree in 1665 and then dedicated his time to the binomial theory and Calculus.1 By 1666 Newton was the most advanced and enlightened mathematician our world had yet to see.2 Newton wrote in these beginning years as a physicist, â€Å"the nature of things is more securely and naturally deduced from their operations on one another than upon the senses; our explanation†¦show more content†¦3 * This statement contains two parts; the first being that which predicts the motion of a non moving object and the second being that which predicts the motion of moving object. * Here are a few examples of Newton’s first law: 5 o Dropping the handle of a hammer onto a hard surface in order tighten the head of the hammer more securely to the handle. 5 (This picture was taken from o Catching a stick in the spokes of your bicycle while riding and being sent flying over the handle bars. 5 o Turing a mustard bottle upside down and slamming it down on the counter suddenly to bring the mustard to the cap so you can put it on your sandwich. 5 Newtons Second Law If a 50 kg man is making his way down the mall at a brisk pace of 2 meters per second what is the force acting on him? How do we go about solving this? Well according to Newton’s Second Law, the change in momentum is equal to the force. In other words force is equal to mass timesShow MoreRelatedThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1128 Words   |  5 PagesIsaac Newton was an English Physicist, Mathematician, Astronomer, Philosopher, Alchemist and a Theologian. He can be seen as one of the most influential men in history, as well as one of the greatest scientists ever lived, for all of his contributions, discoveries and hard work. He was very influential in the Sciences, many are tied together with one another; he also made a great contribution to Astronomy. Isaac Newton was born January 4, 1963 in Woolsthrope, Lincolnshire. He died March 31, 1727Read More The Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay990 Words   |  4 PagesSir Isaac Newton was a profound mathematician and physicist, one of the primary scientificintellects of all time. For almost 300 years, Newton has been known as the leader in scientific achievements of modern physical science as well as mathematical research. Dedicated to learning and experimenting, Newton also plunged into chemistry, early history of Western Civilization and theology, and a concentration of special studies in forms and dimensions, which also included Solomons Temple in JerusalemRead MoreEssay on The Contributions of Isaac Newton973 Words   |  4 Pages Sir Isaac Newton is considered by many people to be the greatest scientist that ever lived. He made key fundamental contributions to mathematics and physics. His revolutionary advances in math, optics, physics, and astronomy are bases for the princ iples we use today. A little known fact about Newtons legacy is that if you look in an encyclopedia of science, it will reveal at least 2 to 3 times more references to Newton than any other individual scientist. Newton was bornRead MoreThe Endless Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1442 Words   |  6 PagesSir Isaac Newton once said, â€Å"We build too many walls and not enough bridges.† Aside from his countless contributions to the worlds of math and science, this may be his most important quote because it is what he based his life on—building bridges of knowledge. Throughout his life he was devoted to expanding his and others knowledge past previously known realms. Often regarded of the father of calculus, Newton contributed many notable ideas and functions to the world through his creation of calculusRead MoreThe Contributions of Isaac Newton to The Scientific Revolution1064 Words   |  5 Pages The Scientific Revolution laid down a foundation in which modern science is heavily based on. An influential figure of the Scientific Revolution is Sir Isaac Newton. He made many advancements in the field of science and mathematics, he discovered Gravity, developed the t hree basic laws of motion, and co-development of Calculus. Isaac Newton did several thing that positively affected the scientific community during the Scientific Revolution and still affect society today, he recognized the threeRead MoreThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1120 Words   |  5 Pagesthings including mathematics. Among them was Isaac Newton (1642-1727) who co-invented calculus, discovered the Binomial Theorem, and formulated a theory of universal gravitation (Smith). Newton has been regarded for almost 300 years as the founding exemplar of modern physical science, his achievements in experimental investigation being as innovative as these in mathematical research. Before discussing his three achievements, it is important to note that Newton had some college experience but did hisRead MoreThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1342 Words   |  6 Pages Sir Isaac Newton was a well educated person. He wrote on many topics including math, science, religion, and even philosophy. He also held many high ranking positions such as a member of the Royal Society and being the Master of the Mint. Information about his life and achievements will be discussed in the following paragraphs, along with how the achievements relate to the humanities base theme of faith and reason. Sir Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day in 1642. This is theRead More The Contributions of Isaac Newton Essays1626 Words   |  7 Pages Isaac Newton was born in Lincolnshire, on December 25, 1642. He was educated at Trinity College in Cambridge, and resided there from 1661 to 1696 during which time he produced the majority of his work in mathematics. During this time New ton developed several theories, such as his fundamental principles of gravitation, his theory on optics otherwise known as the Lectiones Opticae, and his work with the Binomial Theorem. This is only a few theories that that Isaac Newton contributed to the worldRead MoreThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay1352 Words   |  6 PagesNature and natures laws lay hid in night: God said, let Newton be! And all was light. - - Alexander Pope The Enlightenment characterizes a philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of reason to analyze and scrutinize all previously accepted traditions and doctrines. Through this application of scientific method to all aspects of life, the role of science gradually replaced the role of religion. Sir Isaac Newton, quite possibly one of the most intelligent men to existRead MoreThe Contributions of Isaac Newton Essay830 Words   |  4 PagesOf all of the early scientists of the scientific revolution I am most impressed by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton is important because he contributed more to the development of science than any other person in history. Isaac Newton is remembered as the greatest scientific genius who ever lived. His discoveries about physics, light, and mathematics changed the world. I am even more impressed by what he overcame to reach his goals. He came to surpass even his own expectations

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Lung Cancer The Deadliest Form Of Cancer Essay - 1183 Words

Lung cancer is the deadliest form of cancer in the United States. It kills more men and women than a number of cancers combined. The disease has many risk factors that affect the chances of obtaining it. The leading risk factor is one that can be avoided, that is smoking. This paper will look at methods to find, diagnose and treat lung cancer. It will show ways to reduce chances of getting lung cancer and also look at preventive methods used. Description of Lung Cancer Lung cancer can be divided into two different types, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is the least common type and is mostly found in those that smoke a lot. It is also the most deadly because of the rapid growth it exhibits. Non-small cell lung cancer is a general term for many different types of lung cancer. These types are: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. (Mayo Clinic, 2015) Lung cancer solely attacks the lungs but could metastasize further. Signs and Symptoms One factor that makes lung cancer so deadly is the fact that in the early stages there may not be any signs or symptoms. These will gradually occur on advancement of the cancer. Signs and symptoms that may occur are: a new cough that does not go away, any changes in a chronic cough, hemoptysis, dyspnea, chest pain, wheezing, hoarseness, weight loss without effort, pain in bones and a headache. (Mayo Clinic, 2015) Risk Factors There are manyShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Nanoparticles On Lung Cancer1323 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effect of Nanoparticles on Lung Cancer As time has gone on, the search to find a cure to lung cancer continues to this day. Researchers and scientists have spent years constructing numerous labs and tests trying to find an answer to the age old disease that has taken the lives of thousands. Lung cancer involves the rapid growth of unknown cells in the lung region. Unfortunately, similar to many other forms of cancer, it is difficult to detect symptoms at an early stage. In most cases, patientsRead MoreIn Breast Cancer, The Estrogen-Estrogen Receptor Complex1430 Words   |  6 PagesIn breast cancer, the estrogen-estrogen receptor complex cause cell proliferation (Frank, 2013). Hormone therapies can target the effects of hormones in two ways: 1) by stopping the production of estrogen and testosterone, reducing their levels, and 2) by binding to the hormone receptor and blocking the hormone from binding (Frank, 2013). In breast cancer, drugs such as Lupron â€Å"prevent the ovaries from making estrogen by blocking cues fr om the brain that regulate the ovaries† (Frank, 2013). In prostateRead MoreBanning Cigarettes Should Be Made Illegal1027 Words   |  5 PagesThe Deadliest Addiction Every year, cigarette smoking kills more than 480,000 Americans, with more than 41,000 of these deaths from exposure to secondhand smoke1. With the United States constantly passing new laws to protect us, you would imagine that with this huge statistic, banning cigarette sales and distribution would be a main priority. Not only is the person smoking harming themselves, but people are also getting cancer from second hand smoke when they’ve never picked up a cigarette in theirRead MoreArticle Review On Information About Cancer Essay1073 Words   |  5 PagesInformation About Cancer By Brijesh Ghelani | Submitted On January 13, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Brijesh Ghelani Though we have all heard the term Cancer through many sourcesRead MoreNutrition, Exercise and Cancer Prevention Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesAmericans will be diagnosed with cancer this year, and some 560,000 will die from the disease† (Exercise and Malignancy 5). Many individuals and families have fought the battle of cancer for a number of years. There is not yet a perfect cure for this number one deadliest disease, and it is unknown how long it will take to find one. While many risk factors of developing cancer cannot be changed such as genetics, environmental carcinogens (substances that cause cancer), or a certain number of hormonesRead MoreThe Effects Of Tobacco On The Society1453 Words   |  6 Pagesindians. Tobacco was one of the first crops grown for money. The amount of pollution and harm the tobacco and cigarette companies cause every year is alarming. Tobacco is hurting the country through pollution, cancer causing chemicals, and debris of tobacco products. â€Å"The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation† (Proctor). Cigarettes are harmful to everyone, including the environment, and anyone near a cigarette smoker or someone who abuses tobacco. If tobacco companiesRead MoreIs Cancer A Genetic Disease?2353 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction Cancer is one of the oldest genetic diseases known to man. Since the evolution of mitosis as a means for cell division and the development of multicellular eukaryotes - like humans and their biological progenitors - mutations in normal cell maturation and proliferation have resulted in various types of cancers, some benign but many of which exhibit great malignancy (Hajdu, 2011). Cancer, and one of its more common forms carcinoma, is characterized as a genetic disease where by mutationsRead MoreSmoking Essay1452 Words   |  6 Pagesdid or even buy. For them it was that box of cigarettes. First of all, smoking has been told to be one of the deadliest possessions a person could have but, it has been an issue for most people stop. Cigarettes are known to harmfully destroy almost every organ in your body. To get into more in depth about it, Cigarettes are a little small cylinder component madeRead MoreCancer Rates And Lifestyle Choices1981 Words   |  8 PagesCancer Rates and Lifestyle â€Å"Cancer has become one of the most devastating diseases world-wide—every year about 10 million people are diagnosed with cancer and, of these, more than 7 million will die of this disease† (Panno 91). Cancer rates are at an all-time high and are an increasing issue in our world today. Specific races are not susceptible to cancer, but regions are. The lifestyle choices being adopted throughout the world are a direct cause of the recent increase in cancer rates and cancerRead MoreApproximately 42 million (18.1% of population) people smoke in the United States (CDC(a), 2014).2200 Words   |  9 Pageshas long been associated with lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease, and various oral health diseases (CDC(b), 2014). Much of the risks currently known about smoking can be attributed to the landmark Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the United States published in 1964. The report was the first of its kind to comprehensively conclude that cigarette consumption caused lung cancer and bronchitis (HHS, 2014). This

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Various Free Essays

Sleep deprivation is a common occurrence in modern culture. Every day there seems to be twice as much work and half as much time to complete it in. This results in either extended periods of wakefulness or a decrease in sleep over an extended period of time. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Various or any similar topic only for you Order Now While some people may like to believe that they can train their bodies to not require as much sleep as they need, this belief is false. Sleep, by definition, is the natural periodic suspension of voluntary bodily functions and complete or partial suspension of consciousness, during which the powers of the body are restored (Ratcliff Van Dongen, 2009). Only in the last century have the psychological and scientific areas of study began to investigate and explore the nature, purpose, and properties of sleep. The purpose of this essay is to analyze the value and effect of sleep deprivation on cognition. The majority of articles describe partial sleep deprivation as having negative effects on cognitive, behavioural, physiological, and emotional measures. From this information, it is derived that various cognitive abilities will affect productivity and performance. Therefore, it is hypothesized that sleep deprivation affects cognitive, behavioural, physiological and psychological measures because it increases and worsens stress, impairs cognitive function and emotional stability. How an individual responds to sleep loss, whether it is partial deprivation (sleeping less than 5 hours in one 24-hour period), short-term total sleep deprivation (no sleep for 24-48 hours),and long-term total sleep deprivation (no sleep for more than 48 hours) can vary. Ratcliff et al. 2009) indicate that sleep deprivation has been shown to impact negatively on a wide range of cognitive abilities, such as behavioural, physiological and emotional. For example, mood changes including irritability, fatigue, difficulty in concentration, and disorientation to short-term memory alterations are due to decreased attention, concentration lapses, and decreased motivation. Similar results were published by Alhola polo-Kantola (2007). The study concluded that the person deprived of total sleep experiences negative mood, sleepiness, fatigue, and decline in alertness and performance. Some sleep-deprived individuals report visual hallucinations or distortions and feelings of paranoia. Systematic studies of total sleep deprivation have revealed some temporary cognitive deficits but no permanent effects. Kloss, Szuba Dinges (2002) discovered the most significant effect of sleep loss is the physiological sleepiness, or the tendency to fall asleep when there is a lack of stimuli. Sleepiness becomes extreme after the loss of a single night of sleep. Without competing stimuli, an individual lacking a night’s sleep can fall asleep within 2 or 3 minutes the next day. This can cause dramatic affects on productivity. After about 48 hours without sleep, microsleeps become increasingly more common even when participants are physically active (Kloss et al. , 2002). Microsleeps are essentially several seconds of actual sleep with delta waves that interrupt the regular EEG of a person who is awake, which impairs his or her continuity of cognitive function (Kloss et al. , 2002). Therefore, as sleepiness increases, an individual must increase effort to maintain a stable level of performance because microsleep generally happens directly before performance failure occurs. In addition to the impairment of cognitive functions, adult symptoms of sleep deprivation may vary from those of a child. Yawning constantly, dozing off while watching a television show, poor concentration and grogginess while waking up are some of the symptoms adults display when they are deprived of sleep (Dahl, 1999). The symptoms of a sleep-deprived child include irritability, daytime naps, tantrums, hyperactive behaviour, and moodiness. Getting out of bed in the morning is a problem for children who experience sleep deprivation. Adolescents also experience a change in their sleep patterns that their bodies want to stay up late and wake up later, which often leads to them trying to catch up on sleep during the weekend (Dahl, 1999). This sleep schedule irregularity can actually aggravate the problems and make getting to sleep at a reasonable hour during the week even harder. According to Dahl (1999), following sleep loss and hyperactive behaviour, changes in attention and performance also represent a complex area of investigation in children and adolescents. Sleep loss is associated with brief mental lapses in attention during simple tasks that can be partially offset by increased effort or motivation. Sleep deprivation can sometimes mimic or exacerbate symptoms of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including distractibility, impulsivity, and difficulty with effortful control of attention. There is also emerging evidence that sleep deprivation has marked influences on the ability to perform complex tasks or tasks that require attention in two or more areas at the same time (Dahl, 1999). Therefore, a teenager should try to go to bed at the same time every night and wake up at the same time every morning, allowing for at least 8 to 9 hours of sleep. On the other hand, many people are suffering from daytime sleepiness so pervasive that it interferes with their daily activities because they do not get the optimal amount of sleep they their bodies need. Lack of sleep and sleep problems can have serious, life-threatening consequences, as well as a significant impact on productivity (Alhola et al. , 2007). Many people suffering from routine sleep loss are not even aware of it, and many who do realize they are not getting enough sleep are not aware of what it is costing them. Sleep loss creates sleepiness, which can be associated with decrements in vigilance, reaction time, memory, psychomotor coordination, information processing, and decision-making (Rosekind et al. , 1996). With increasing sleepiness, individuals demonstrate poorer performance despite increased effort, and they may report indifference regarding the outcome of their performance. Even severely sleep deprived people are still able to perform to some degree on a verbal learning test. This implies that some other area of the brain must become active to compensate for the loss of temporal lobe functioning. Even though they can perform to some degree, sleep deprived people still do not perform as well on these tests as do fully rested subjects Rosekind et al. (1996) illustrate that not getting enough sleep affects the people in several ways, such as problem solving skills are impaired. Sleep loss noticeably impairs our ability to comprehend apidly changing situations, increases the likelihood of distraction, makes us think more rigidly and less flexibly, and reduces our ability to produce innovative solutions to problems. In addition, our communication skills also suffer because sleep loss reduces the words in vocabulary both verbally and in writing (Rosekind et al. , 1996). Learning and memory suffer as sleep loss diminishes scores on tests of memory, verbal fluency and overall creativity (Rosekind et al. , 1996). Therefore, if a person is not able to get a full night’s sleep after learning something new, he will not remember the new knowledge well. He will not fully assimilate the new ideas or task until he is able to go through a complete night of uninterrupted sleep cycles. In relation to our communication and memory skills, being sleepy on the job, whether the cause is simple sleep deprivation or an undiagnosed or untreated sleep disorder, can also have a vital impact on how well workers can do their job. For example, night-shift workers have poorer daytime sleep, reduced night-time alertness and performance, and an increased accident rate (Williamson Feyer, 2000). Since sleep deprivation causes individuals to feel so sleepy during the day, their concentration and performance suffer significantly. For example, sleep deprivation often leads to an increase in the incidence of motor vehicle accidents. One study found that individuals suffering from fatigue due to sleep apnea are six times more likely to have a motor vehicle accident than persons who are not suffering from fatigue (Williamson et al. , 2000). This is partly due to the person being groggy or sleepy due to lack of rest. It is also partly due to the fact that sleep deprived people tend to fall into sleep for very brief periods at unforeseen times. They also are more disposed to industrial accidents than non-apnea workers (Kloss et al. , 2002). Therefore, there is a direct connection between sleepiness and impaired hand-eye coordination. The degree of impairment has led researchers to compare it in severity to drunkenness and this can be represented by having an untreated sleep disorder such as insomnia, narcolepsy, or sleep apnea significantly increases the risk of having a motor vehicle accident. Since sleep deprivation increases the likelihood of having a motor vehicle accident, sleep is needed to regenerate certain parts of the body, especially the brain, so that it may continue to function optimally (Landsness et al. , 2009). After periods of extended wakefulness or reduced sleep neurons may begin to malfunction, visibly affecting a person’s behaviour. Some organs, such as muscles, are able to regenerate even when a person is not sleeping so long as they are resting (Landsness et al. , 2009). This could involve lying awake but relaxed within a quite environment. Different parts of the brain are rested and regenerated during different phases of sleep. During some phases of sleep, the neurons in the cerebral cortex regenerate (Landsness et al. , 2009). If sleep is interrupted so that this regeneration cannot occur, speech may be affected, since the temporal lobe of the brain is what controls speech (Alhola et al. , 2007). People who do not get enough sleep often have slurred speech. There is also measurably less activity in their temporal lobes than in those of well-rested people (Alhola et al. , 2007). During Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep, memories are consolidated and categorized by the brain (Ellenbogen, 2010). New synaptic connections are also formed during REM sleep, aiding learning. If REM sleep is cut short, long-term memory may be affected and new knowledge might not be retained (Ellenbogen, 2010). Conversely, short-term memory might be better in the sleep deprived person because the part of the brain that controls short-term memory contains memories that are still fresh. In order to counteract sleep deprivation effects, the brain works harder but the effectiveness is low. There is a drop in the concentration level and it affects memory too (Lim Dinges, 2010). The effects of sleep deprivation include slurred and fragmented speech and slowing down of mental reaction time. Problem solving and decision making abilities of the brain are affected. Due to rigid thought patterns of the brain, new problem solving ideas do not get generated, and hallucinations are common for people who have insufficient rest (Kloss et al. , 2002). Sleep deprivation causes deterioration in emotional mood of human beings. Irritability and short temper are two common symptoms of sleep deprivation (Dahl, 1999). Consequently, emotional outbursts and even violence are noticed among people who are deprived of sleep because of a loss of emotional control (Dahl, 1999). Sleepiness leads to rise in stress and anxiety levels of these individuals. Stress and anxiety in turn will lead to insomnia and this kind of vicious cycle will lead to anxiety disorders and depression, if left unchecked. Our emotional moods are affected by exhaustion and fatigue. This condition in turn will lead to pessimism, sadness, stress and anger (Jennings et al. , 2003). To function effectively, the frontal cortex of our brain needs sufficient sleep. The ability to control speech, problem solving and accessing memory is all controlled by the frontal cortex and if there is not enough rest, these abilities are affected (Landsness et al. , 2009). One thing is for certain, that chronic sleep loss may lead to deterioration of mood and motivation, decrease in attention, energy, and concentration. It also causes an increase in fatigue, irritability, tension, anxiety, and depression (Jennings et al. , 2003). Any one of these consequences of sleep deprivation can seriously affect productivity and performance. There is no question about it that the problem of sleep loss and fatigue is one that impacts significantly on the professional and personal lives of all humans. In association to all these studies, the purpose of this essay was to analyze the importance of sleep deprivation on cognition. There is considerable evidence to support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation has negative effects on neurobehavioural (sustained attention, reaction time, and vigilance) and cognitive (memory and reasoning) performance in humans (Rosekind et al. , 1996, Williamson et al. , 2000, Kloss et al. , 2002 Alhola et al. , 2007). In some ways, sleep deprivation studies help us to study and understand the relationship between the brain and behaviour in a very unique way by observing how a person’s behaviour changes as the brain shuts down. Just like a person cannot jog for three continuous days, a person’s brain cannot operate without rest breaks. Since different regions of the brain rest during different stages of the sleep cycle, sleep cannot be cut short (Landsness et al. , 2009). Therefore, too little sleep can influence our intellectual capabilities, emotions, and motor performances, which creates major issues for sleep deprived drivers because they are falling asleep at the wheel. To reduce our behaviour in sleep deprivation, it is important for us to manage our activity so that we have more time to sleep. So, to have a good quality and quantity of sleep, time management is the key. How to cite The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Various, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

The Investment Detective Case free essay sample

Actually, we can rank the projects by simply inspecting the cash flows. However, it is not a good method to rank the projects. In order to ensure that the investment projects selected have the best chance of increasing the value of the firm, we need tools to evaluate the merits of individual projects and to rank competing investments. In this case, our group using some tools which are Payback Period, Net Present Value (NPV) , Profitability Index (PI), and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). We are only using quantitative considerations that we think to be relevant and no other project characteristics are deciding factors in our selection of the best four projects. Payback Period NPV PI IRR Sum of Cash Flow Benefits Excess of cash flow over initial investment Project 1 6 years 22 days $ 73. 09 104% 10. 87% 3310 1310 Project 2 2 years ($ 85. 45) 96% 6. 31% 2165 165 Project 3 15 years $ 393. 92 120% 400% 10000 8000 Project 4 6 years 18 days $ 228. 82 111% 12. 33% 3561 1561 Project 5 7 years 1 month 20 days $ 129. 70 106% 11. 12 % 4200 2200 Project 6 1 year 0 100% 10% 2200 200. Project 71 year 10 months 20 days $ 165. 04 108% 15. 26% 2560 560 Project 8 6 years 14 days $ 182. We will write a custom essay sample on The Investment Detective Case or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 98 109% 11. 41% 4150 2150 When coming up with our calculations to rank the four best projects we have to take into account that each project is going to require an initial investment of two million dollars and in using historical data from other capital budgeting analysts in the firm, we assume that the appropriate discount rate is ten percent for our calculations. After calculating it, we have found the number for every tool on every project, and rank the projects. Even project’s ranking using different methods give a different ranking. Therefore, we are basing our rankings only from the results that we receive from our Net Present Value calculations because we feel this method to be the most consistent and it also takes into account all of the cash flows as well as the time value of money. Most important, The NPV measures how much wealth a project creates or destroys for shareholders. The NPV approach has the clearest link to maximize shareholder wealth and become the â€Å"gold standard† for evaluating investment opportunities. Because we are using the NVP method, the ranking of the project is: Ranking 1 Ranking 2 Ranking 3 Ranking 4 Ranking 5 Ranking 6 Ranking 7 Ranking 8 Project 3 Project 4 Project 8 Project 7 Project 5 Project 1 Project 6 Project 2 Therefore, the best four projects are Project 3 (NPV = $393. 92), Project 4 (NPV = $228. 82), Project 8 (NPV = $182. 98), and Project 7 (NPV = $165. 04) What kinds of real investment projects have cash flows similar to those in Exhibit? Project 1 is mostly similar to investment in a coupon bond, where you are able to get coupon payments periodically at the end of the period when you get the principal. Project 2 and 6 are most likely like the actual venture capital project where bulks of cash inflows occurs at the end while some of the cash inflows takes place at the beginning. Project 3 is related to zero coupon bond where you can purchase the bond at a specific price and you receive a big cash inflow at the end of the maturity period. The following projects 4, 7, and 8 are closely similar to an investment in machinery, which generates positive cash for you for a certain period of time. After a while, you can sell that off and receive some more cash. There might be some additional cash outflows initially to get the machinery going. Project 5 is similar to annuity in an machinery investment Recommendation Based on case analysis, we have already ranked the project and know the best four projects which are the projects that the company should accept. Ranking 1 is project 3 which is related to zero coupon bond. Ranking 2 until Ranking 4 are project 4, 8, and 7 which are an investment in machinery. We suggest that the company accept project 3 because it has the highest NPV which is $ 393. 92.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Research Paper on Quantum Physics Essay Example

Research Paper on Quantum Physics Essay Quantum physics is a general name for a set of the natural theories originated in twentieth century, which, like the theory of relativity, mark a rupture between what is now called classical physics – all theories and physical principles accepted in the nineteenth century. The so-called â€Å"quantum† theories describe the behavior of atoms and particles – what classical physics, including Newtonian mechanics and electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, could not do – and elucidate some properties of electromagnetic radiation. Its description of microcosm, radically new, is based on new assumptions. In 1900, the researches of German physicist Max Plank showed that the radiation energy is discrete and is emitted by specific portions – quantum, whose energy depends on the frequency of the light wave. The theory of Max Planck did not need the concept of ether and overcome the contradictions and difficulties of electrodynamics by James Maxwell. Max Planck experiments led to the recognition of the dual nature of light, which has both corpuscular and wave properties. It became clear that such a conclusion was not compatible with the concepts of classical physics. Thus, Max Planck theory introduced a new quantum physics, which describes the processes in microcosm. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Quantum Physics specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Quantum Physics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Research Paper on Quantum Physics specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Basing on the ideas of Max Planck, Albert Einstein suggested the quantum theory of light, according to which light is a moving stream of photons. The quantum theory of light (photon theory) considers light as a wave with a discontinuous structure. Light is the flow of indivisible quanta of light – photons. It became clear that the electron is knocked out by a photon only if the photon energy is sufficient to overcome the force of interaction of the electrons with the atomic nucleus. In 1922, for the creation of the quantum theory of light, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. The explanation of the photoelectric effect of the process was based, in addition to the quantum hypothesis of Max Planck, on the new ideas about the atom structure. In 1911, English physicist Rutherford proposed the planetary model of the atom. The model represents an atom as a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. This model allowed to explain the phenomenon of rejection of alpha particles passing through the atom. As the size of an atom is larger than that of electron and nucleus, the alpha particle passes unimpeded through it. The deviation is observed only when the alpha particle passes close to the nucleus, in this case, the electric repulsion causes a sharp deviation from its original path. All this and even more should be presented in your research proposals on quantum physics. So you can freely use some free sample research papers on the subject, to find additional information for your research project. Are you looking for a top-notch custom written research paper on Quantum Physics topics? Is confidentiality as important to you as the high quality of the product? Try our writing service at! We can offer you professional assistance at affordable rates. Our experienced PhD and Master’s writers are ready to take into account your smallest demands. We guarantee you 100% authenticity of your paper and assure you of dead on time delivery. Proceed with the order form: Please, feel free to visit us at and learn more about our service!

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Business Types and Key Influences

Business Types and Key Influences Free Online Research Papers In basic terms a business can be defined as an entity that provides merchandise and services to others who wish for or require them. When starting a new business, the first thing that must be considered is the ownership structure. Will the business be a corporation, a partnership, a sole proprietorship or a limited liability company? Which one of these types of ownership will suit the business depends on the type of trade and the needs of the venture. The success or failure of a business largely depends on the governance and operational methodology of the owners, stakeholders, managers and employees. These methodologies are fundamentally influenced by key factors such as economic impact, governmental manipulation and legal aspect. The purpose of this memo is to look at the types of businesses and key influences that affect the way business is conducted at Riordan Manufacturing, Haffman Trucking, Kudler Fine Foods, McBride Financial Services, The Elias Group, and Smith Systems Consulting. Riordan Manufacturing Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. is in the business of plastic injection molding. Some of their products are plastic bottles, fans, heart valves, medical stents and custom plastic parts. The company is entirely owned by Riordan Industries, Inc. and has facilities in San Jose, California, Albany, Georgia, Pontiac, Michigan and Hangzhou, China. Riordan Manufacturing employs 550 people and has projected annual earnings of $46 million. (University of Phoenix, 2006) Business Type The name Riordan Manufacturing, Inc. indicates that the company is a corporation, and the balance sheets and income statements provide the clarification that the company is a C corporation since it has paid and is liable to pay corporate taxes. (University of Phoenix, 2006) According to Pratt (2001), â€Å"To the IRS, a C corporation is a separate taxpayer.† (p. 50) Key Influences Riordan Manufacturing is impacted by all three key influences as mentioned in the table. Below are the explanations of the influences. Economic Influence. Under the economic influence, Riordan Manufacturing is affected by GNP and GDP growth rate. Raymond (2004) explains, â€Å"The GNP and GDP are fairly close, differing mainly in whether non-U.S. residents in the United States or U.S. residents outside the United States are included in this calculation. GNP includes the value of goods and services produced by nonresidents located within the United States but excludes the value of those services and goods produced by U.S. residents working abroad. GNP excludes the former but includes the latter.† (para. 6) Since Riordan Manufacturing is producing goods inside and outside of the United States, both GDP and GNP would directly be affected by the growth of the company. â€Å"Maximum production signifies economic growth, or increasing the total amount of goods and services produced by the American economy.† (Raymond, 2004, para. 6) The second factor is the inflation Rate. Inflation rate is the rise in percentage in prices of goods and services. This phenomenon usually occurs when the demand for goods and services is higher and the supply is weak. If the supply of the raw material required by Riordan Manufacturing is feeble, it would have serious impact on the production which in turn would have unconstructive bearing on the relationship with their clients. Another view is that if the cost of the raw material is high it would have a direct negative bearing on the profit of the corporation. Since Riordan Manufacturing is a manufacturer and supplier, inventory levels play a significant roll in the business practices of the corporation. The company needs to have a certain amount of inventory in stock so that the customer orders are not negatively affected due to any delay in production. This leads to the next influence which is consumer confidence. For any business consumer belief is the most important and essential aspect of the trade. If the customers are not satisfied with the products, the consequence would be dreadful for the business. The scenario is no different for Riordan Manufacturing who works hard to exceed the ISO 9000 standards. ISO 9000 standard according to International Organization for Standardization (2009) website is the standard for quality management system. The last economic influence is currency exchange rate. Since Riordan Manufacturing also has a facility in China that produces fan blades and fan housing, the currency exchange rate could have a good or bad affect in terms of expenses and profits in US dollars. Government Influence. A few government influences also affect the trade practices at Riordan Manufacturing. The US government regulates almost every aspect of the manufacturing industry which impacts the production at Riordan Manufacturing. From the disposal of waste and bi-products to the emission of gases from the manufacturing facilities; everything is directed by laws and standards. These parameters affect the operational cost of the corporation since it has to monitor constantly and maintain the equipment and machinery at the factories and also take measures to abide by the regulatory procedures. Since Riordan Manufacturing is a C corporation, it has to pay income taxes on the profits gained. Higher tax rates mean more taxes have to be paid and would affect the overall profit. Legal Influence. The current federal minimum wage for non-exempt employees is $6.55 per hour. (United States Department of Labor, 2009) Riordan Manufacturing has 550 employees and it has to make sure all the employees are paid at least the minimum wage as stated by the federal and state laws. University of Phoenix (2006) states, â€Å"there have been no attempts by any union to organize the facility; however, there are rumors that an organizing drive may be focused on the plant during the next 12 months. While the company has officially agreed to remain neutral if there is an organizing campaign (as required in its vendor agreement), unofficially, company officials are opposed to unionization and would prefer to stay union-free.† (para. 10) If a union is organized at Riordan Manufacturing, the company will have to abide by all the union regulations which could mean higher pay rates and benefits for the employees; that could affect the profits gained. Environmental protection laws are designed to protect the environment and public health. (Environmental Protection Agency, 2009) These laws regulate emissions and waste disposal methods that directly affect Riordan Manufacturing because during the production of its products, gases and waste is generated, Huffman Trucking Huffman trucking is a national transportation company that employs 1,400 employees, and has logistical hubs located in Los Angeles, California, St. Louis, Missouri and Bayonne, New Jersey. Huffman trucking has its central maintenance facility in Cleveland, Ohio. The company’s expected revenues for fiscal year 2004 is more than $6 million. (University of Phoenix, 2005) Business Type University of Phoenix (2005) states, â€Å"Huffman Trucking continued to grow from internal sales and the acquisition of five Eastern regional carriers. This growth has enabled Huffman Trucking to continue to be privately held.† (Para. 3) As per the balance sheet and income statement, the company has not paid any income tax or is not liable to pay any income tax. (University of Phoenix, 2005) These facts show that the company is a sole proprietorship. Key Influences The business practices of Huffman trucking are shaped by all the key influences that are explained below. Economic Influence. Under the economic influence factor, Huffman Trucking is affected by inflation rate. University of Phoenix (2005) states, â€Å"Fuel and labor are significant elements of cost that impact profits. The challenge to Huffman is to determine when fuel and labor costs have risen to the point that they should pass them on to the customers.† (para. 10) Apparently from their own words, it can be confirmed that inflation rates have direct impact on the profit of the company. Government Influence. Even though the transportation industry is practically deregulated today, there are still some states that have strict regulations governing the trucking business. â€Å"Federal law still requires new carriers to apply for certificates of public convenience and necessity. All tariffs must be filed with the commission. Most states continue to enforce strict entry and price controls on intrastate carriers. These controls cause inefficiency. One result is that in some cases, shipping products from overseas is cheaper than shipping the same goods within the United States. Shipping blue jeans from El Paso, Texas, to Dallas, for example, costs about 40 percent more than shipping the identical jeans from Taiwan to Dallas.† (Moore, 1993, para. 20) Legal Influence. The transportation industry is usually prone to unions and Huffman Trucking is no different. Since there is an organized drivers union at the company, it has to abide by the union laws and regulations. Kudler Fine Foods Located in San Diego, metropolitan area, Kudler Fine Foods is an upscale specialty food retail store that sells domestic and imported food items. The company has a store in Del Mar, California and Encinitas, California. (University of Phoenix, 2007) Business Type From looking at the company’s financial statements and balance sheets, it is pretty clear that there is only one owner and the company doesn’t pay any income tax. This fact proves that Kudler Fine Foods is a sole proprietorship. A Sole Proprietorship is a legal entity where the business is the same as the owner. (University of Phoenix, 2008) Key Influences Economic, governmental and legal key influences that concern the business routine of Kudler Fine Foods are described below. Economic Influence. Since Kudler Fine Foods is in the retail business, inflation rate plays a major role in its business model. With a high inflation rate the cost of purchasing a product for retail would go up which means that the cost would eventually have to be passed down to the customers. This chain of events would drive the customers away from the stores, affecting the profits. The inventory levels have to be strictly monitored. Since the business is related to food that can only be stocked for so long after which it has to be discarded. So, to keep the wastage low only a limited amount of inventory needs to be purchased. The quality, cleanliness and service have to be top class in any food business. This implies that for customer confidence and satisfaction, the quality and service needs to be constantly scrutinized. Government Influence. Food businesses are closely monitored and strictly regulated by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The Food and Drug Administration branch of the US Department of Health and Human Services strictly controls the businesses that are related to foods and drugs. â€Å"The FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.† (United States Food and Drug Administration, 2009, para. 1) Along with domestic products, Kudler Fine Foods also retails imported food products. This subjects the company to import tariffs and quotas. Legal Influence. Kudler Fine Foods has to regularly monitor the federal and state minimum wages law since it has employees working on minimum wages. This fact also drives down the profit as the minimum wages are increased by the government. McBride Financial Services McBride Financial Services is a fairly young regional mortgage lender based in Boise, Idaho. The company plans to spread out its venture to Wyoming, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota. It caters to professionals, retirees, families and individuals looking to purchase either a primary or secondary residence or recreational properties. (University of Phoenix, 2005) Business Type Though not much information is provided about the formation of the company, it is apparent from the name that the company is owned by a single individual. In addition, there is no mention of the tax expenses in the Pro Forma Budget. Hence, McBride Financial Services is a sole proprietorship. Key Influences. McBride Financial Services is impacted by all three key influences that are explained below. Economic Influence. Since McBride Financial Services is in the financial business that lends money, it is hugely affected by the interest rate. The profit margins are solely dependent on the interest rate that a property is financed at. Higher interest rates mean higher profit margins. The other key economic influence is the monetary policies. The regulation of interest rates and the supply of money to control inflation and stabilize the currency is termed monetary policy. (InvestorGuide, 2009) This policy has direct affect on the financial institution and McBride Financial Services being in the financial services business is precisely influenced by it. Government Influence. Although monitored by the SEC, Until 2009 the banking and finance industries were very vaguely regulated. This allowed the financial institutions the freedom to practice their own business methodology. But, due to the current economic situation fueled by the unethical practices of the finance industry, the government has set forth new regulatory laws which McBride Financial Services has to adhere to. Legal Influence. McBride Financial Services has to abide by the antidiscrimination and fair credit reporting act based on the services that the company is providing. The Elias Group The Elias Group is a non-profit organization that provides consultation services and assists businesses that desire to contract with the United States government. The organization also provides grants to support academic and professional research. (University of Phoenix, 2004) Business Type Since The Elias Group is a nonprofit organization and there is not too much information available regarding the company’s finances, I would guess that it is an S corporation since this is the best way to incorporate a nonprofit company in terms of the tax exemption laws. (University of Phoenix, 2008) Key Influences Being a nonprofit organization, The Elias Group is not concerned by most of the key influences. Explained below are the ones that do influence the company. Economic Influence. The expenses and operational costs are paid by contributions from businesses and individuals. If the unemployment rate is too high, the amount of contribution drops, affecting the operations of the organization. Government Influence. Grants from the government is another major source of revenue required to run the organization. Government debt and budget deficit could shrink the grants from the government which would have adverse results on the functions of The Elias Group. Smith Systems Consulting Smith Systems Consulting is an IT consulting firm that specializes in software and website designing, developing, hosting and maintaining. It also offers database and IT support services. (University of Phoenix, 2004) Business Type As the name SSC, Inc. implies, Smith Systems Consulting is a corporation. Since no information is provided regarding the company’s finances, it is hard to determine what type of corporation it is. Since it is specified in University of Phoenix (2004) that there are 5 partners, it gives an impression that the firm is an S corporation because an S corporation has more tax benefits as oppose to a C corporation. (University of Phoenix, 2008) Key Influences Consulting firms providing IT services are usually not subjected to too many key influences. A few are specified below. Economic Influence. Since Smith Systems Consulting is in the services business, the factor of utmost importance affecting their business practices is consumer confidence. The firm has to work diligently to provide the best quality service to its clients in order to gain customer confidence and keep the consumers satisfied. Legal Influence. In IT development and programming business, copyright and patent laws play a crucial role in how the business is conducted. Smith Systems Consulting has to make a conscious effort not to use source code from any other software company or programmer. Conclusion In conclusion, there are a few key influences such as payroll taxes, political climate, political stability and discrimination laws that apply to the business practices of all types of organizations. Any firm that employs at least 1 employee has to deal with payroll taxes. The political climate and stability is important because if the conditions in the country are not suitable no business can thrive. Lastly, today no firm is exempt from discrimination laws due to the diversity in the workforce and variety in the customer base. Research Papers on Business Types and Key InfluencesMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductPETSTEL analysis of IndiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesDefinition of Export QuotasBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfThe Project Managment Office SystemTwilight of the UAWOpen Architechture a white paperThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into Asia

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Promotion on London dungeons Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Promotion on London dungeons - Essay Example All visitors who seek information on all available tourist attractions will access these guide and in so doing they get know about London dungeons. Another mode of advertisement applied to market the London dungeons is Dictionaries and translators. These are made in a way to define all the characteristic terms of this attraction and the popular events and performances (Andrews, 2004, p.134). In so doing, the advertisements are accessible by school children and the other learning institutions. The definitions and translations create interests on the side of students to visit and witness the events defined and translated. Another mode of advertisement is through the media and the internet. They advertise and place tickets on their website, indicating the group discounts available and the age groups for which these are applicable. Advertisements are also made through printing photos that shows the popular events and attractions of London dungeon. Such photos are required to be purchased and used as gate passes for eligible entry. Bill boards are also used by Merlin Entertainments Group to advertise London dungeons. For 2012 Olympics, the Merlin Entertainment group needs to intensify its advertisement strategies to reach all the potential visitors who will be coming to London. There should also be established strategies to make tickets, gate passes and entrance photos easily and accessible from various destinations and